Monday, March 16, 2020

Free Essays on Atom Bomb

The atom consists of a central, positively charged core, the nucleus , and negatively charged particles called electrons that are found in orbits around the nucleus.The Nucleus Almost the entire mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus, which occupies only a tiny fraction of the atom's volume. The nucleus of an atom consists of neutrons and protons, the neutron being an uncharged particle and the proton a positively charged one. Their masses are almost equal. Atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons represent different forms, or isotopes , of the same element.The Electrons Surrounding the nucleus of an atom are its electrons; for a neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the atomic number. The outermost electrons of an atom determine its chemical and electrical properties. An atom may combine chemically with another atom in various ways, either by giving up or receiving electrons, thus setting up an electrical attraction between the atoms (see ion ), or by sharing one or more pairs of electrons (see chemical bond ). Because metals have few outermost electrons and tend to give them up easily, they are good conductors of electricity or heat (see conduction ).The electrons are often described as revolving about the nucleus as the planets revolve about the sun. This picture, however, is misleading. The quantum theory has shown that all particles in motion also have certain wave properties. For a particle the size of an electron, these properties are of considerable importance. As a result the electrons in an atom cannot be pictured as localized i n space, but rather should be viewed as smeared out over the entire orbit so that they form a cloud of charge. The electron clouds around the nucleus represent regions in which the electrons are most likely to be found. The shapes of these clouds can be very complex, in marked contrast to the simple elliptical orbits of planets. Surprising... Free Essays on Atom Bomb Free Essays on Atom Bomb The atom consists of a central, positively charged core, the nucleus , and negatively charged particles called electrons that are found in orbits around the nucleus.The Nucleus Almost the entire mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus, which occupies only a tiny fraction of the atom's volume. The nucleus of an atom consists of neutrons and protons, the neutron being an uncharged particle and the proton a positively charged one. Their masses are almost equal. Atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons represent different forms, or isotopes , of the same element.The Electrons Surrounding the nucleus of an atom are its electrons; for a neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the atomic number. The outermost electrons of an atom determine its chemical and electrical properties. An atom may combine chemically with another atom in various ways, either by giving up or receiving electrons, thus setting up an electrical attraction between the atoms (see ion ), or by sharing one or more pairs of electrons (see chemical bond ). Because metals have few outermost electrons and tend to give them up easily, they are good conductors of electricity or heat (see conduction ).The electrons are often described as revolving about the nucleus as the planets revolve about the sun. This picture, however, is misleading. The quantum theory has shown that all particles in motion also have certain wave properties. For a particle the size of an electron, these properties are of considerable importance. As a result the electrons in an atom cannot be pictured as localized i n space, but rather should be viewed as smeared out over the entire orbit so that they form a cloud of charge. The electron clouds around the nucleus represent regions in which the electrons are most likely to be found. The shapes of these clouds can be very complex, in marked contrast to the simple elliptical orbits of planets. Surprising...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Capturing Tacit Knowledge In Squh Free-Samples for Students

According to Caimo & Lomi (2015), knowledge is a vital aspect of an organizational resource as it aids in the provision of a viable competitive advantage in a diverse and competitive market. Knowledge can be understood and defined in various way. For instance, Lehrer defines knowledge as what we know and understanding of what is false. Similarly, Wang and Hou, (2015), states that knowledge is processed information that entails ideas, facts, experience, and judgment relevant for a person, group, and organizational outcome. Therefore, for organizations to enhance dominance in the market, Caimo & Lomi (2015) reiterates that it’s essential for firms to depend on staffing and training methods that emphasize on the acquisition of workers that have particular knowledge, abilities, or capabilities or assisting employees to obtain them. Hence, the institute must put into consideration various ways to transfer knowledge from specialists that have the experience to trainees that needs it . As such, most organizations employ innovations in the management of this information and enhanced storage manner. However, the technological ways are not able to protect informational materials found in a person’s mind that have been stored for some years of studies, abilities, and experience. Notably, Srinivas (2016) identifies that there are two types of knowledge: explicit and tacit knowledge with the latter being expressed in books and speeches while tacit resides in mind and characters of an individual. According to Joe, Yoong, & Patel (2013) affirms that like other health centers and organizations, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) experience loss of knowledge due to a significant portion of its older experts leaving the facility due to retirement. Therefore, this paper explores knowledge capturing process in SQUH, the value of knowledge exchange, challenges and opportunities of tacit knowledge, and various methods of capturing tacit knowledge in SQUH. According to Sherwood (2013, p. 16), knowledge acquisition is in various methods, and executives and managers understand the importance of knowledge in the success of an organization. Knowledge management provides a vital factor when struggling in the competitive market since most clients visit facilities that they perceive to have skilled experts. Based on Srinivas (2016) studies, knowledge comes in two forms: explicit and tacit. Explicit Knowledge can be easily transferred from an individual to a given populace through the web, speech, and books while tacit is hard to transfer since it resides in peoples' mind and characters. Therefore, most organizations including SQUH employs an explicit form of knowledge management since individual’s knowledge in an institution can be expressed and made clear. Also, the health facility management believes that the approach can be incorporated to assist staffs in sharing information they entail to develop knowledge assets. The integration of information management systems within the Institute plays a significant role in enhancing the spread of explicit material assets over the hospital’s intranet, thus, helps in efficient patient management. Additionally, the hospital employs experiments and various factors of structured processes that are developed to remedy the lack of information that it essential to the health center. According to Caimo & Lomi, (2015), knowledge is one of the constant rising organizational assets such as management systems, brand identity, client information, and institutional character. It’s an important virtue in humans as it indicates grouped expertise and efforts of connections and associations. Most of the duties performed by workers are usually knowledge based, thus, a critical driver to corporates success. As such, the importance of knowledge is observed when it entails core functions and focuses on mission, fundamental values, and strategic significances. Therefore, in case the hospital reorganizes or changes its culture of knowledge management, Caimo & Lomi (2015) claims that valuable knowledge will diminish since staffs that leave the facility move with their valuable information, resources, abilities, and experience. Those that are employed or stays can be given new tasks and never incorporate their wealth of stored knowledge. Since the organization integrates both tacit and explicit knowledge systems, employees practice various perspectives to find a solution to a given problem. Hence, they share information and teams physical and intellectual possessions in current and creative styles. This allows the hospital management to exploit and utilize on knowledge-based activities, thus, aids in minimizing the cost of production, enhanced completion of creation of new merchandise, group activities, innovation capabilities and income generation. Based on Nesheim & Gressgà ¥rd, (2014) research on knowledge management, provision of relevan t materials at the time of necessity by use of structure, search, syndication, and support knowledge exchange, provides room for developing good decisions. According to Chen, Lin, & Yen (2014) teamwork promotes different opinions, and diverse experiences during the decision-making process, hence, enables decisions to be created on genuine understanding. Conspicuously, it facilitates smooth and timely completion of responsibilities such as finding a solution to a problem, analyzing markets, benchmarking against co-workers, and understanding competition. Chen, Lin, & Yen (2014) articulates that active and efficient knowledge management process enhance reuse of already developed information that eventually helps to reduce rework, avoid problems, saves time, and hasten progress. Sharing of knowledge among the employees as well aids in avoiding redundancy at work, therefore, saves money and streamline events. Remarkably, transfer of knowledge between personnel helps in preventing similar mistakes in the future, and this is usually accelerated by a culture of trust and openness within the workers. Also, Chen, Lin, & Yen (2014) argues that knowledge gained from a fellow employee assist an individual to learn from their experience and use it to their advantage in the management of patients and to perform other tasks. Moreover, enhancing the exchange of knowledge within the facility limits skill gaps since new staffs such as students in the internship, attachment, and recruited employees can quickly acquire the talents. When workers share thoughts and resources among themselves there is a feeling of a common objective being pursued, thus, boosts interest and strengthens every individual to exchange knowledge. According to Wang & Hou, (2015) knowledge helps employees to acquire more than they lose through sharing since the transfer of information is a synergistic method, hence, build one's morale when performing a given role. Knowledge exchange also enables provision of skills and abilities that are in demand due to their short supply in organizations mainly through the formation of discussion forums, training workshops, and ask the expert approach. For instance Wang & Hou, (2015) states that material sharing, reuse, and inventions can primarily minimize the time required to provide services to clients, thus, provides a competitive advantage to the hospital. With recent developments in the health sector such as the invention of Trakcare technology to enhance efficient patient management in SQUH, most of its staffs acquire skills and knowledge concerning their domain, competitive space, and customer requirements. As the ability to operate the machine develops, it becomes more significant for the organization to protect, nurture, and utilize recognized operators of the technique. According to Bessick & Naicker (2013) this is usually gained by employees that are not willing to document or share obtained expertise. Just like institutions that don't consider dissemination of information, workers frequently become the primary owner of the knowledge, thus, making the knowledge extinct in case the person retires or leaves the organization. According to Bessick & Naicker (2013), to store knowledge, management must target four areas to ensure knowledge dissemination and efficient application through teamwork. This includes governance role, staff activities, accepting operation occupation to develop, recreate, organize, and transmit knowledge properties. Drucker (as cited by Bessick and Naicker, 2013) states that for knowledge process to be significant, captured, and determined, it must pass through three levels. These entails utility of creative knowledge, consideration of knowledge workers as a valuable asset to an organization, and incorporation of formal educative programs to enable staffs to apply their ability both theoretically and analytically. Therefore, the following are barriers that occur in SQUH that deters acquisition of tacit knowledge among its employees. Br?i? & Miheli? (2015), asserts that age affects the transfer of tacit knowledge as some staffs consider themselves to be superior to their counterparts. This is because each generation is subjective to numerous factors that form a respective value system distinguishing them from individuals that grew at various times. For instance, students on internship find it difficult to relate with their seniors due to age difference, and this systematically leads to lack of appropriate knowledge transfer. Conversantly, gender also impact acquisition of this knowledge as some employees don’t easily interact with workers of opposite sex. SQUH incorporates several staffs such as nurses, doctors, administrator, human resource officer, and casuals. This entails that different employees have various ranks according to their level of education. However, most important are the doctors and nurses as they are entitled to patients that are major clients of the facility. Hence, Chuang, Jackson, & Jiang (2016) postulate that different level of study between nurses and physicians prevent smooth interaction and consultation, thus, minimizes the opportunity of attaining tacit knowledge. For instance, doctors might perceive their interaction with nurses to be diminishing their profession, therefore, relate easily with other specialists. Additionally, Br?i? & Miheli? (2015) reiterates that inadequacy of trust and failure embrace possession of intellectual stuff by various employees, thus, diminishes the ability of one to transfer tacit knowledge to the other. Based on Chuang, Jackson, & Jiang (2016) studies that poor managerial and leadership style in an organization that can’t integrate current information management systems also aids in deterring transmission of this knowledge from an individual. Moreover, leadership that fails to develop policies that are focused on knowledge retention enhance loss of informational materials from the experts. Lack of incorporation and compatibility of information technology structures and process leads to loss of tacit knowledge among the employees in SQUH. As such there is lack of technical support and communication between staffs at different departments, hence, leading to retention of knowledge by presumed experts. Likewise, the administration doesn’t demonstrate the importance of new techniques in inclination to the existing ones, thus, contributes to a reduction in knowledge sharing. Tong, Tak, & Wong (2015) articulates that knowledge creation in a firm entails making accessible and strengthening information that is made by entities as well as forming and integrating it into a facility’s knowledge structure. The major contributors to knowledge development grounds on numerous studies of information making in innovative Japanese Enterprises that eventually confirmed that knowledge creation bases on four models of knowledge exchange. The knowledge development involves Socialization, Externalization, Combination, and Internalization that is commonly known as SECI model. Significantly, Easa, 2012 claims that achievement of most Japanese Companies relied on their capability to generate innovative organizational knowledge centered on a cyclic model of endless interactions and conversion of tacit and explicit materials on three stages: individuals, groups, and institute. Globally, the framework has become widely recognized by scholars in categorizing, constructing, documenting, sharing, and exchanging knowledge from a Knowledge Management perception. The figure below indicate the four channels of SECI model. According to Easa (2012) the method transforms tacit knowledge to new tacit information by enhancing exchange of experience, skills, and opinions and majorly it occurs through social and cultural activities organized by organization such as team building. Typically it takes place in a traditional form other than through documented manuals or books. Additionally, it can occur during informal social gatherings outside the institute in which tacit knowledge like worldviews, mental models, and friendship is developed and shared. Also, it can be drawn up beyond hospital’s boundaries such as interaction with clients and suppliers. Easa (2012) states that this technique changes tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge that occurs when the organization attributes its inside rules of happenings formally or when it openly sets their goals that quickly captures through writing or computerization. Therefore, by converting tacit knowledge to explicit, it enables easy sharing, hence, becomes the significant source of new information. As such, capturing of tacit knowledge is eased since the experienced staff can easily put the tacit knowledge into writings that can be read by other members. The process articulates explicit knowledge into various systematic groups of explicit knowledge. Easa (2012) reiterates that explicit information is derived either from inside or outside the facility then fused, edited or managed to create new insights. Combination involves changing of explicit knowledge into more detailed and logical sets of clear understanding. The developed knowledge is then shared among various employees, and it can be facilitated by creative incorporation of online communication systems and databases. For instance, when the hospital’s auditor gathers data from different departments and assembles them in a context to create a financial report, the report is regarded as a new knowledge since it integrates information from various sources in a single context. Easa (2012) indicates that the process transfers explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge indicating that explicit knowledge is internalized to obtain tacit knowledge. By internalizing, any development of explicit knowledge is exchanged between staffs and transformed into tacit informative materials through individuals. Internalization is almost similar to learning by performing, for instance, creation of training programs can assist trainees to apprehend the institution or reading documented manuals concerning their job descriptions can help them internalize explicit knowledge contained in such files to enhance their tacit knowledge. Similarly, the acquired tacit knowledge at personal level can then enable a new set of knowledge making when it’s exchanged between personnel by socialization method. Tounkara (2015) argues that knowledge sharing is a major challenge for many organizations and significantly those that bases their approach on knowledge codification through employing knowledge engineering means. Most of these institutes experience a significant problem as their knowledge repository is used by few individuals. Since tacit knowledge is that information found in a person’s mind and attributes that is unique and once possessed can be a greater boost to a company’s achievement. However, the knowledge is significantly individualized and difficult to formalize, hence, hard to communicate to other populace. For example, Tounkara (2015) identifies that tacit knowledge occurs in two scopes: technical dimension that entails the â€Å"know-how,† and cognitive aspect that encompasses beliefs, ideas, and values that most are taken for granted. Therefore, tacit knowledge is a non-codified know-how that is obtained through informal take-up of educated traits and procedures. However, tacit knowledge is still a new domain that is not known by several managers, thus, depends on their natural ability to enhance correct decisions making process. As such, institutions that seek to propel their competitive advantage in the market has to integrate environment that enables employees to verbalize their tacit materials. General staffs, therefore, needs to exploit their addition to the group of ideas that facilitates a competitive edge to the facility. In SQUH different strategies are used to capture tacit knowledge among various experts that are seen to be viable for success of the firm. Harmaala (2014) argues that face-to-face interaction among colleagues in the hospital has been observed as the primary channel for sharing tacit knowledge with the most common model being expert-novice model. Quietly, it’s always believed that the new recruits, novice employees learns from their senior specialist, but the advantages occur when both are involved in sharing their ideas and opinions. Nevertheless, to support success of the model persons are required to develop trust and motivation among themselves. Moreover, Harmaala (2014) claims that individual system is also considered as a way of capturing tacit knowledge from workers. This is enhanced through cycling of tasks in which staffs performing similar roles can exchange their work, thus, enables personnel to discuss their capability and ideas together after the transfer duration. Similarly, based on Harmaala (2014) incorporation of teamwork through pairing of staffs when performing their roles enhance sharing of ideas, skills, views, and experiences. Therefore, new updated operational styles are developed, and the tacit knowledge is retained within the hospital. A common method of capturing tacit knowledge in the institution via pair work include mentoring and expert-novice. The university hospital has majored mostly on mentoring as a technique since the experienced personnel provides advice, guidance, and support for the newly recruited staffs. The method focuses on individuals own objectives and professional growth that is opposed to organization’s stated goals. Additionally, through mentorship one is able to acquire various skills and ideas that are shown by the senior employee, thus, helps in smooth transfer of the knowledge. Significantly, integration of teamwork by management as a means of apprehending tacit knowledge has helped in retaining significant information from experienced personnel. However, Harmaala (2014) claims that the approach is useful when participants are of different age brackets and different experience. Usually, every attendant must co-operate, hence, share ideas and thoughts. As such, it provides deeper exploration of solutions to a problem as it involves diverse views from individuals that are facilitated through communication, knowledge transfer, and questions to obtain best results. According to Harmaala (2014) the system of externalization that entails exchange of tacit information to explicit knowledge has been incorporated in the workforce mainly by interviewing individuals and documenting their knowledge. However, the technique provides a challenge since it’s hard to include expressions, emotions, and actions in a text manner. This leads to loss of various amount of educational materials and knowledge that can be useful to the organization.    Knowledge is a primary factor that needs consideration by managers when making company’s decision to enhance success of an organization. Knowledge is of two dimensions: explicit and tacit in which the latter can be acquired through books and print media while the second resides in people's mind and characters. However, technology can’t transform this knowledge found in individuals mind to other populace, hence, the need to develop various techniques to enable its sharing. Various methods have been integrated into SQUH to help in acquisition of this knowledge such as through encouraging socialization, internalization, combination, and externalization commonly known as SECI model. Additionally, the hospital has developed different ways of capturing this knowledge by incorporating mechanisms like encouraging face-to-face interactions, teamwork, and mentorship among employees. Conversely, the institution faces numerous hindrance in integrating this knowledge. Some of the ba rriers include difference in educational levels of the staffs that prevent dynamic interactions, sex and age of personnel also inhibit sharing of tacit information, and technology adoption among workers. Therefore, to facilitate exchange of this knowledge, SQUH needs to incorporate different mechanism such as encouraging more outdoor socialization that certainly improves knowledge sharing Bessick, J. and Naicker, V., 2013. Barriers to tacit knowledge retention: an understanding of the perceptions of the knowledge management of people inside and outside the organisation: original research. South African Journal of Information Management, 15(2), pp.1-8. Br?i?, Ã… ½.J. and Miheli?, K.K., 2015. Knowledge sharing between different generations of employees: an example from Slovenia. Economic Research-Ekonomska IstraÃ… ¾ivanja, 28(1), pp.853-867. Caimo, A. and Lomi, A., 2015. Knowledge sharing in organizations: A Bayesian analysis of the role of reciprocity and formal structure.  Journal of Management,  41(2), pp.665-691. Chen, Y.H., Lin, T.P. and Yen, D.C., 2014. How to facilitate inter-organizational knowledge sharing: The impact of trust. Information & Management, 51(5), pp.568-578. Chuang, C.H., Jackson, S.E. and Jiang, Y., 2016. Can knowledge-intensive teamwork be managed? Examining the roles of HRM systems, leadership, and tacit knowledge. Journal of management, 42(2), pp.524-554. Easa, N., 2012. Knowledge creation process & Innovation in Egyptian Banking Sector. In Organization Learning, Knowledge and Capabilities Conference. Harmaala, M., 2014. The Tacit Power: Case study: Maintpartner. Joe, C., Yoong, P. and Patel, K., 2013. Knowledge loss when older experts leave knowledge-intensive organisations.  Journal of Knowledge Management,  17(6), pp.913-927. Lehrer, K., 2015.  Theory of knowledge. Routledge Nesheim, T. and Gressgà ¥rd, L.J., 2014. Knowledge sharing in a complex organization: Antecedents and safety effects. Safety science, 62, pp.28-36. Sherwood, W.R., 2013.  A case study: Barriers preventing the capture of tacit knowledge in small manufacturing companies  (Doctoral dissertation, Baker College (Michigan)). Srinivas, S.A.S., 2016. Driving Knowledge Sharing Initiatives for Enhanced Collaboration in Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) Libraries–A Case Study.  Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management,  14(1). Tong, C., Tak, W.I.W. and Wong, A., 2015. The Impact of knowledge sharing on the relationship between organizational culture and Job satisfaction: The perception of information communication and technology (ICT) practitioners in Hong Kong. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 5(1), p.19. Tounkara, T., 2015. Increasing transferability of tacit knowledge with knowledge engineering methods. Leading Issues in Knowledge Management, Volume Two, 2, p.114. Wang, W.T. and Hou, Y.P., 2015. Motivations of employees’ knowledge sharing behaviors: A self-determination perspective. Information and Organization, 25(1), pp.1-26.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Nursing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 12

Nursing - Essay Example Notably, nursing practice entails numerous responsibilities and workers need time for adequate rest because of the nature of the job. Moreover, there is a need for a proper compensation for the services in terms of a decent pay (Snow, 2008). However, my current employer does not seem to realize that the organization has not considered salary increment for over 6 years now. During this period, the responsibilities accorded to workers have increased immensely. With many workers expressing their discontent concerning the poor labor practices, there is a need to address the issue promptly. This paper will describe the most appropriate approach to solving the problem. The best approach for addressing the ensuing problem of being overworked and underpaid is by tabling down an outline of all the grievances of the nurses at the health center. In this outline, the nurses will indicate the number of hours they put in on a daily basis, the numerous tasks they are expected to handle each day, and outline the pay they receive for such work. In addition to such an outline, the nurses will also indicate the number of additional staff required to take up some of the responsibilities in an effort to ease the overworking (Snow, 2008). The outline will also indicate the expected pay, compensation, and benefits that each nurse deserves for the work they do. In an effort to ascertain that being overworked and underpaid is a threat to the performance of the health center, the nurses will describe the negative effects resulting from the poor labor practices. There is evidence that many of the nurses are suffering from depression due to work related causes. In addi tion, the nurses are discouraged, and they have been registering numerous eras in their work because of the depression and lack of motivation (‘US nurses overworked, underpaid-and in demand’, 2012). Moreover, the outline presented will also indicate

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Policy and Practice In the Education of Bilingual Children Essay

Policy and Practice In the Education of Bilingual Children - Essay Example Long-term planning for language use and literacy should use official curricula, such as the Early Years Foundation Stage in England, as its launching pad, and there is no need for other laborious documentation. Schemes of work and long-term commitment to set repeated topics are more likely to stifle creativity than be a useful structure for planning. The long-term aim for teachers is to encourage children to build her or his language in their own unique way and leave the Foundation Stage excited and enthusiastic about their learning. Long-term planning for language can be enhanced by an agreed list of core books and rhymes. This will provide a store of high-quality texts that children will get to know well during their time in setting. These texts can be developed with double language copies and big books, with story snacks, story props and puppets to extend children's experiences. Core books and their props provide a strong basis for all children to develop confidence in their langu age through the visual support. Clear illustrations and repetitive texts are particularly supportive for bilingual children and even for multilingual children. Tower Hamlets Primary School teachers should use various strategies to provide a nurturing environment. Sensitive grouping of children can ensure that there is a supportive friend who will model language for the bilingual children to copy. Their friend can also guide them through the various social and cultural situations that they may find puzzling. Teachers can ensure that bilingual children are placed in a position so that they can hear clearly, can observe any accompanying gestures and can always see any book illustrations or visual material that is supporting the... This essay stresses that all children have an entitlement to benefit from the Early Years Foundation Stage, and context is a key factor in helping bilingual children learns sufficient English to enable them to do so. Scaffolding language provides a supportive structure for them. First-hand experiences provide the context and the motivation for children to learn the language in a way that is meaningful to them. They gain in confidence and make their first tentative steps in English. Their first words are added to by staff who provide a rich commentary on the children’s play and learning activities. This report makes a conclusion that it is pertinent to note that all young children have considerable adjustment to make when they first encounter formal schooling. The observations of this report have indicated that teachers involved depicted a rapid adjustment to school. Although variations were apparent from one teacher to another. overall. teachers‘ ratings of the children tended to favor the bilingual group. The teachers themselves had to adjust to working within the framework of the research design but nevertheless. their observations support the practicability of a bilingual curriculum. Consideration should be given to the structure of curriculum experience for bilingual pupils. Particularly with regard to the probable interaction between languages in the children's experience. Perceptions of bilingual education varies considerably among staff in schools. The government also should support teachers by establishing systems in schools that will favor bilingual children.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Children in Malouf Essay -- essays research papers

Children take center stage in a lot of maloufs stories, but the memory of childhood is a deeper, more resonant thread throughout this collection. Pre – adolescence, particularly the ages of nine or ten, carries enormous weight in the writer’s imagination. The light from his Brisbane childhood often illuminates his narrative, and the remembered landscape often illuminates his narrative, and the remembered landscape fills in the background, but it is the child’s worldview that is the dominant concern. Malouf has talked about â€Å" the kind of fluidity of your perceptions at that time which are mostly un-judgmental†, although he acknowledges the incredible strength with which convictions are held. Most of the important questions about relationships and their foundations have begun to surface, yet the child is banished from the adult world at the same time, instilling in them a sense of mystery about the milieu of grown-ups and an awareness of the boundary t hat exists between childhood and adolescence. Maloufs younger characters exhibit many of these qualities, while the adults try to recapture the untrammeled joy of discovery they remember from their youth. â€Å"Closer† and â€Å"Blacksoil Country† are both told from the child’s point of view. Although Jordan, the ‘child’ in the latter story, is discovered to be a 150 –year-old ghost, he shares Amy’s fierce loyalty to her family, despite any objections they may have their elders’ behavior. Both children are driven to heal familial wounds: ...

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Employment Dispute Resolution in Singapore

1. Introduction a. Objectives The objective of the report is to provide a better understanding of the roles of the different courts in settling employment disputes. At the end of the report, reader would be able to find alternatives in settling employment disputes too. b. Methods of Research In this report, there will be real life case studies settled by different courts for settling disputes. These cases will help in illustrating the criteria for using the different courts. This report will also include internet research. 2. Causes of DisputesDisputes are caused when both parties, namely the employer and employee, cannot come into an agreement over monetary issues such as wages, benefits and overtime pay. Other circumstance will be a violation of health safety standards or law that can be common law or related to employment. Court cases will arise when these disputes are not resolved by conciliation or mediation. 3. Acts Relating to Employment There are two main acts that concern th e procedures of settling disputes. They are the Employment Act (EA) and Industrial Relations Act (IRA). c. Employment ActFor employees covered by the Employment Act, employment disputes will only be referred to the Labour Court for adjudication if they are unable to be resolved amicably through conciliation. Conciliation is a process which involves negotiations between the parties, then coming up with a mutually agreed decision that is fair to the parties involved. However, certain conditions must be satisfied, that the claim must be on matters arising not earlier than one year from the date of lodging the claim, and if the employee concerned had already left employment, the claim must be lodged within six months from the date of leaving employment.For managers and executives who are not covered by the Employment Act, the Ministry will consider providing mediation service to help resolve employment disputes on breach of contract or retrenchment. Mediation, a non-adversarial process, involves a mediator who will facilitate the entire process by helping the parties involved to first identify issues, negotiate, then find a practical solution and settlement that all parties involved are mutually agreeable to and able to accept. The mediation process is voluntary and considered on a case-by-case basis.There are certain requirements that will apply, which includes that the managers and executives are earning $4500 and below, the claim is in respect of a matter which occurred within the period of one year before the date that the issue is reported, if the claim is for items related to their termination (e. g. notice, the issue must be lodged within six months from the date on which the employee has left employment), and when viable alternatives such as private amicable settlement with employer had been exhausted.However, if either party fails to respond to mediation or if no amicable settlement could be reached after mediation, the matter will then be pursued in the civil court. d. Industrial Relations Act The Industrial Relations Act is passed in 1960 to provide a mean to settle employment disputes through collective bargaining which involves the union, conciliation and if unresolved, through arbitration held by the Industrial Arbitration court. This act aims to protect employees who are members of the union, allowing them to enjoy benefits covered under.Examples of union include the Food, Drinks and Allied Workers Union and Singapore Airlines Staff Union. This act limits the representation of employees who are in managerial and executive positions in certain areas. As defined in Section 30(1) of Industrial Relations Act, an executive employee is an employee who is employed in a managerial or executive position. They are not allowed to have representatives from the union to negotiate for retrenchment benefits upon retrenchment or resolving any dispute in the contract of employment.As this act is a bridge to the tripartite relationship in Singa pore, namely the government, employer and employee, there are certain procedures to follow in accordance to filing a case against the employer in a unionized organization. Preceding the filing, the employee would have to try to resolve the dispute with his immediate supervisor. Failing that, he or she can choose to bring the matter up to a member of the branch committee of the Union who would make a representation of the employee in resolving the dispute.In more serious cases, it can be brought up to the Human Resource Department by the General Secretary of Union and may even request a union management meeting with the management of the company. After all means, both parties will then refer the case to Ministry of Manpower for conciliation which is an invitation to negotiate under the Act. If an agreement is not reached by both parties, they can seek mediation by the Industrial Arbitration Court. 4. Different Courts The employees covered under the different acts will bring up their unresolved disputes to different courts. . Labour Court The Labour Court, deals with issues between employers and employees when they cannot be resolved through mediation or reconciliation at the MOM level. It is empowered by law to inquire into and arbitrate disputes between employees and employers. If mediation between the parties does not yield any agreement, for example, company not paying their employee salary or wrongful dismissal. The decisions or orders by the Labour Court are enforceable. It is also more viable for the employee to go through the Labour Court to settle employment disputes.However, the employees must not be earning more than S$2500 per month and are covered under the Employment Act. In the case of Vertex Global Holdings Pte Ltd, they owed an employee in arrears for about 2. 5 months. They gave the reason of having financial difficulties and were not able to pay the employee. The case was brought up to the Labour Court but they did not accept this explanation and the company was ordered to pay the employee amounting to $2820. In another case whereby a cook employed by VP Food Pte Ltd, he was terminated after 3 days.However, the employer was to pay him a sum of $235. 38 for work done but was underpaid. The reason that the employer gave was the distress caused by the cook’s harassment and there was no notice period specified. The explanation was rejected. The court held that Employment Act prevails and notice pay was payable In such cases, Labour Court comes into good use when dealing with unfair treatment from the company. But in recent years, the number of cases being brought up to Labour Court has decreased from 2009 to 2010.This shows that mediation or reconciliation has contributed to a huge part of the decrease in number of cases and they would be a better solution to problems than going to court. f. Industrial Arbitration Court Employment disputes, concerning union members, are not resolve under the conciliation of MOM are re ferred to the Singapore Industrial Arbitration Court (IAC) for further remediation. The IAC resolve disputes between employers and employees by offering the best possible solutions that are not only fair and beneficial to both parties but also in the interest of the community and country’s economic situation.The decision made by the Justice of IAC is concluding hence it cannot be disputed or appealed against. Voluntary and compulsory arbitration are the two ways that employers, unions or the government can refer an employment disputes to the IAC. Through the voluntary arbitration, employers and unions can refer their cases to the IAC through a joint or ex-parte application however this is only applicable when mediation at the MOM level is deem inconclusive. Under compulsory arbitration, a dispute is referred to the IAC when it is directed by the MOM or the President of Singapore.With increasing efforts from tripartite co-operation, Singapore has seen a great decrease in the n umber of cases being handled at IAC. The number of employment dispute cases averaged 10 per year and this indicate that that majority of the cases are being resolved at MOM and union level. This is essential as it helps to reduce unnecessary loss of work man hours and provide foreign investor’s confidence to invest in Singapore which in turn boosts the Singapore economy. Over the years, IAC has proven to be an effective way in solving disputes between employees and employers however there are cases when one party might feel otherwise.In the case of the dispute between Singapore Refinery Company and the representing union, the general secretary of SRCEU mentioned that â€Å"the union is disappointed with the ruling as a whole. † The case was brought up to the IAC for settlement as the union demanded salary and service increment for SRC employees. The president of IAC concluded that SRC will increase the service increment to 5 per cent plus $15 and 3 per cent salary incr ement. The union felt that the increment was too low and there was no effective communication between them and the company.This case show that whiles the IAC may provide the best feasible solution however it does not mean that it is the best fit for all the parties involved in the dispute. g. Civil Court The role of civil courts in resolving employment disputes is at minimal. Disputes raised by Professionals, Manager and Executives, also known as the PMEs, earning up to S$4,500, are solved in civil court. However, the Ministry of Manpower in Singapore is looking into resolving their salary disputes in Labour Court in the near future, limiting it to S$20,000.This allows PMEs to seek a lower cost alternative in resolving their disputes. For breaches in employment contract, it will still be handled by civil courts under law of contract. 5. Comparison h. Differences Between The 3 Courts | Civil Court| Labour Court| Industrial Arbitration Court| What they settle? | Employment disputes on breach of contract or retrenchment that cannot be resolved through mediation| Employment disputes that cannot be settled through conciliation| Trade disputes that cannot resolve through conciliation| How they settle? The role of Civil Court in resolving disputes is at minimal. Civil Court handles breaches in employment contract under law of contract. | The court has the authority to analyse and settle disputes(for example, unfair treatment from the company)| Resolve employment dispute through arbitration. The decision made by the Justice of IAC cannot be disputed or appealed against. | Criteria| PMEs(Professionals, Manager and Executives) earning up to $4,500| No legal representation is allowed in Labour Court.Employees not earning more than $2,500 per month and are covered under Employment Act| An executive employee who are employed in a managerial or executive position are not allowed to have representatives from the union to negotiate for them(retrenchment or disputes in the con tract of employment)| Who can go? | Managers and executives that are not covered under Employment Act| Employers and Employees under Employment Act| Employers and trade unions| In the past, Singapore employment law has been favorable to employers.However, the trend in recent years shows that enhancement of employee welfare and safety became more important. i. Singapore versus United States of America Both countries show various similarities of the roles of court in settling employment disputes. In United States of America (USA), employees are allowed to sue for dismissal due to discrimination of gender, religion, origin and many more. Employees are generally protected against discrimination under U. S Equal Opportunity Commission (EEOC).In Singapore, employers are encouraged to practice fair employment promoted by Tripartite Alliance for Fair Employment Practices (TAFEP). In both countries, employees are allowed to bring their employers to court in any event that there are employmen t disputes and unresolved by conciliation and arbitration. However, there are differences too. In United States of America, the government is more in favor of the employees whereas in Singapore, the government is more in favor of the employers.Also, in any disputes, the United States of America allows employees to hire a lawyer or an attorney to represent them in court. In Singapore, employees covered under different acts are represented by different people such as the union leader or even unrepresented in front of the labour court. The different courts are designed to different cases involving money or other disputes while all disputes in United States are brought to only one court. 6. Conclusion Through intensive research and findings, this report covers the key points on how the different courts resolve employment disputes.Although MOM have proven to be an effective medium in mediating disputes between employers and employees, there is still a need for the presence of court to re solve cases that are more complex. Case studies are being brought up in the report to further illustrate how disputes are being resolved at different levels. In referring to the SRC case, it clearly highlight that although the IAC has provided the best possible remedy however it does not satisfy all parties who are involved in the case.This means that better procedures can be considered to better understand the problems underlying between employees and employers. Through our recommendations, it will provide possible solution to further enhance the system that is already in place. The recommendation will not only look at the current problems but it will also propose how corporations can create a harmonious working relationship among employers and employees. 7. Recommendations

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Earning a Masters Degree in Health Care Online 2019

Online colleges show in their academic program designs that they are very much aware of the evolving health care marketplace. As managed health care has evolved, large bureaucracies have appeared in the form of HMOs and large health care provider groups which require people with business management skills. There is also general recognition of the changing requirements in the marketplace. Management positions where a bachelors degree in health care once sufficed now require a masters in health care. In similar fashion, mid- management positions such as medical office management are often filled by people with bachelors degrees when an associates degree in health care fit the bill not long ago. Online schools stay on top of these trends and many of them have counseling services that can help you define what the educational needs are for the job you are seeking. Because of the changing job market, there are a large number of professionals in the health care industry who are going back to school. These are individuals who wish to move up the management ladder and need the degree to carry along with them. Most of these people have some college education behind them. It is in the online colleges that this sort of mid-career adjustment is accomplished most easily because the schools are geared for it. .uc84fc967cae5e557e6185fc01780e94d { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .uc84fc967cae5e557e6185fc01780e94d:active, .uc84fc967cae5e557e6185fc01780e94d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .uc84fc967cae5e557e6185fc01780e94d { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .uc84fc967cae5e557e6185fc01780e94d .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .uc84fc967cae5e557e6185fc01780e94d .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .uc84fc967cae5e557e6185fc01780e94d:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ Why College Students FailThe goal of the online college is to get you positioned where you want to be in the job market or the professional ranks as efficiently and quickly as possible. A masters degree obtained through an online college will be completed much quicker than it would on campus and can be done during the hours of your choice. Online schools are also experts in the field of transferring college credits, in order to minimize the requirements for repetition of core courses taken long ago. The most comprehensive online masters program in health care administration might be at University of Phoenix Online. Their degrees are designed to incorporate both business essentials and modern medical trends into their courses of study. Below are University of Phoenix Onlines masters degrees in health care management: Master of Business Administration/Health Care Management Master of Health Administration Master of Science in Nursing Master of Science in Nursing Nursing/Health Care Education Master of Science in Nursing/Integrative Health Care Master of Science in Nursing/Master of Business Administration/Health Care Management Master of Science in Nursing/Master of Health Administration .u8c0ef9238feb5b1f9769a488b777b42c { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u8c0ef9238feb5b1f9769a488b777b42c:active, .u8c0ef9238feb5b1f9769a488b777b42c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .u8c0ef9238feb5b1f9769a488b777b42c { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u8c0ef9238feb5b1f9769a488b777b42c .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u8c0ef9238feb5b1f9769a488b777b42c .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u8c0ef9238feb5b1f9769a488b777b42c:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ Criminal Justice Associate Degree Online Excellent Opportunities for Women in CorrectionsYou can see the mix of medical and administrative skills woven into some of these degree programs. Mixing medical training and management skills is going to be a vital part of future management roles in health care, according to the U.S. epartment of Labor. Other online colleges also offer excellent curricula in health care management. Capella University has a masters degree in health care management available online. Kennedy- Western University offers both a masters and a doctorate in health administration. Specific areas for their masters degree include managed care, marketing, policy analysis, quality management and advanced financial management systemic processes. In the business of managed care, a masters in health care administration will move you into a rapidly growing job segment in a rapidly changing field. Related ArticlesOnline Degrees In Healthcare AdministrationGetting Started With a Career in BusinessAttaining a Health Care Management Masters DegreeAdvanced Degrees in Health CareOnline Colleges For Health CareGetting Your Health Care Management Education .u90ae927dec206d0043a660d49a3613c6 { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u90ae927dec206d0043a660d49a3613c6:active, .u90ae927dec206d0043a660d49a3613c6:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .u90ae927dec206d0043a660d49a3613c6 { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: bac kground-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u90ae927dec206d0043a660d49a3613c6 .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u90ae927dec206d0043a660d49a3613c6 .postTitle { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u90ae927dec206d0043a660d49a3613c6:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ Oklahoma Colleges and Universities Pursuing Online and Campus Based Education in Oklahoma, the Sooner State